Can Design Thinking succeed in your organization?

1. R. Martin, “Business Design: Why Design Thinking is the Next Competitive Advantage” (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business Press, 2009); T. Brown and B. Katz, “Change by Design, Revised and Updated: How Design Thinking Transforms Organizations and Inspires Innovation” (New York: Harper Business, 2019); and J. Liedtka and T. Ogilvie, “Designing for Growth: A Design Thinking Tool Kit for Managers” (New York: Columbia University Press, 2011).

2. M. Kupp, J. Anderson, and J. Reckhenrich, “Why Design Thinking in Business Needs a Rethink,” MIT Sloan Management Review 59, no. 1 (Fall 2017): 42; and B. Nussbaum, “Design Thinking is a failed experiment”. So what’s the next step? Fast Company, April 5, 2011,

3. D. Leonard and JF Rayport, “Spark Innovation Through Empathic Design”, Harvard Business Review 75, no. 6 (1997 Nov-Dec): 102-115.

4. J. Liedtka, “Perspective – Linking Design Thinking to Innovation Outcomes through Reducing Cognitive Bias”, Journal of Product Innovation Management 32, no. 6 (2015 Nov): 925-938; Leonard and Rayport, “Spark Innovation Through Empathic Design,” 102-113; W. Visser, “Schön: design as a reflective practice», Collection 2 (2010): 21-25; and C. Bason and RD Austin, “The Right Way to Lead Design Thinking,” Harvard Business Review 97, no. 2 (March-April 2019): 82-91.

5. D. Dunne, “Implementing Design Thinking in Organizations: An Exploratory Study”, Journal of Organization Design 7, no. 1 (December 2018): 1-16.

6. Visser, “Schön: design as a reflective practice”, 21-25.

seven. FE Smulders, “Co-Operation in NPD: Coping With Different Learning Styles,” Creativity and Innovation Management 13, no. 4 (2004 Dec): 263-273.

8. K. Dorst, “Frame Innovation: Create New Thinking by Design” (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2015).

9. J. Conklin, “Thorny issues and social complexity», chap. 1 in “Dialogue Mapping: Building Shared Understanding of Wicked Problems” (West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, 2006).

ten. TC Nguyen, “Invent the perfect umbrella», Smithsonian Magazine, December 9, 2013,

11. BD Rosso, “Creativity and constraints: exploring the role of constraints in the creative processes of research and development teams”, Organization Studies 35, no. 4 (2014 Apr): 551-585.

12. M. Pillay and J. Davin, “Mining Innovation Puts People First: Designing for User Needs», PDF file (Deloitte and Norcat, 2017),; HT Kristiansen, “Design Thinking for Innovation in Offshore Ship Bridge Development”, Journal of Maritime Research 11, no. 2 (April 2014): 53-60; and “NPS Design Thinking Community», Naval Postgraduate School, accessed July 11, 2022,

13. K. Dorst, “Designer Nights Out: Good urban planning can reduce drunkenness-related violence», The Conversation, 5 January 2016,

14. B.Murphy Jr.,”Google says it still uses the ‘20% rule’ and you should totally copy it», Inc., November 1, 2020,

15. G. Muratovski, “Paradigm Shift: A Report on the New Role of Design in Business and Society”, She Ji: The Journal of Design, Economics, and Innovation 1, no. 2 (winter 2015): 118-139.

Aubrey L. Morgan